Erythropoietin

UNDER REVIEW (September 2016)

Mechanism of Action:

Supplements the endogenous production of erythropoietin by the kidney which stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow.

Vitamin B12

UNDER REVIEW (September 2016)

Mechanism of Action:

Vitamin-B12 is required for the successful formation of red blood cells. Deficiency leads to anaemia (Hb<100 g/litre) characterised by macrocytosis i.e. large red blood cells of mean cell volume > 100 fl. This situation is often referred to as ‘megaloblastic anaemia’. Deficiency of also has other important adverse effects on the nervous system including peripheral neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord and dementia.

 

 

Folic acid

UNDER REVIEW (September 2016)

Mechanism of Action:

Folic acid replenishes body stores of folic acid which are required for the successful formation of red blood cells. Deficiency leads to anaemia (Hb<100 g/litre) characterised by macrocytosis i.e. large red blood cells of mean cell volume > 100 fl. This situation is often referred to as ‘megaloblastic anaemia’.

Ferrous Sulphate

UNDER REVIEW (September 2016)

Mechanism of Action:

Replenishes iron stores in the body. Iron is an essential constituent of haemoglobin and if it is deficient this leads to anaemia (Hb<100 g/litre) characterised by microcytosis i.e. small red blood cells of mean cell volume < 80 fl.

Thiamine

UNDER REVIEW (September 2016)

Mechanism of Action:

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. The first two of these enzymes function in the metabolism of carbohydrates, while transketolase functions in the pentose phosphate pathway to synthesize NADPH and the pentose sugars deoxyribose and ribose. Systemic thiamine deficiency can lead to myriad problems including neurodegeneration, wasting, and death. Well-known syndromes caused by lack of thiamine due to malnutrition or a diet high in thiaminase-rich foods include Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and beriberi, diseases also common in chronic abusers of alcohol.

Lecture and CAL materials:

  • CAL: Alcohol Use and Misuse

Calcium

UNDER REVIEW (September 2016)

Mechanism of Action:

Calcium is a key mineral required for bone formation (also heart, muscles and nerves). Inadequate calcium content in the bone leads to osteoporosis.

Lecture and CAL material:

  • Lecture: The Ageing Skeleton and its Treatment

Vitamin D

UNDER REVIEW (September 2016)

Mechanism of Action:

Vitamin D stimulates calcium and phosphate uptake in the gastrointestinal tract and decreases calcium excretion at the kidney.

Lecture and CAL materials:

  • Lecture: The Ageing Skeleton and its Treatment